For the primary time, physicists have used lasers to deep-freeze antimatter.
In a brand new experiment, an ultraviolet laser quelled the thermal jitters of antihydrogen atoms, chilling the antiatoms to only above absolute zero. This method for slowing down antimatter — the oppositely charged counterpart to regular matter — might assist scientists construct the primary antimatter molecules. Taming unruly antimatter with laser mild can also enable physicists to measure the properties of antiatoms far more exactly, researchers report within the April 1 Nature. Evaluating antiatoms with regular atoms might take a look at some elementary symmetries of the universe.
Lasers can cool atoms by dampening the atoms’ movement with a barrage of sunshine particles, or photons (SN: 3/8/21). But it surely’s been exhausting to laser-cool antimatter as a result of, for one factor, “it’s actually troublesome to make antimatter,” says Takamasa Momose, a spectroscopist on the College of British Columbia in Vancouver.
To craft antihydrogen atoms, Momose and colleagues combined antiprotons with positrons, the antiparticles of electrons, on the CERN particle physics lab close to Geneva. Over a number of hours, a laser beam tuned to a selected frequency of UV mild slowed the antihydrogen atoms from whizzing round at as much as 90 meters per second to about 10 meters per second.
Future observations of supercooled antihydrogen might take a look at an thought referred to as charge-parity-time, or CPT, symmetry (SN: 2/19/20). This physics precept says that ordinary atoms ought to soak up and emit photons with the very same energies as their antimatter look-alikes. Even the tiniest variations between hydrogen and antihydrogen might undermine trendy theories of physics, says examine coauthor Makoto Fujiwara, a particle physicist on the Canadian nationwide particle accelerator middle, TRIUMF, additionally in Vancouver.
Equally, Einstein’s principle of gravity predicts that matter and antimatter ought to fall to Earth on the identical charge. Lab experiments dropping laser-cooled antiatoms — as a substitute of heat, jittery ones — into free fall might present a clearer view of gravity’s results.
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